Cleveland Middle School  Logo
Our School Curriculum Attendance Dress Code School Meals Student Check-out Process Family Engagement
ST Math
Activities Before/After School Activities Sports Calendar

School Nurse

Whooping Cough prevented by Dtap and Tdap immunizations!

Why Whooping Cough Has Made a Comeback

girl coughing

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Flaws in current whooping cough vaccines aren't to blame for rising rates of the disease in the United States, a new study contends.

Researchers attribute a resurgence of the disease since the 1970s to factors that arose long before the latest vaccines were introduced in the late 1990s. Whooping cough, a respiratory disease also called pertussis, can be fatal to babies.

"Conventional wisdom is that the current vaccine is the problem, but that's not consistent with what we see," said Aaron King. He is an infectious disease ecologist and applied mathematician at the University of Michigan.

King and his colleagues concluded that the return of whooping cough has roots in the mid-20th century. It's due to natural population turnover, incomplete vaccination coverage, and gradually weakening protection from a highly effective but imperfect vaccine, they said.

"This resurgence is the predictable consequence of rolling out a vaccine that isn't quite perfect and not hitting everybody in the population with that vaccine," explained King, who is also a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Each year, whooping cough claims the lives of 195,000 babies worldwide, mostly in developing nations. In 2016, the United States had 17,972 reported cases, including six infant deaths, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The CDC recommends a series of five pertussis shots for children under 7 years of age. Boosters are recommended for older children and for some adults.

The study authors said most cases of whooping cough are spread when infected school-age children cough or sneeze while in close contact with other children.

"The overwhelming amount of transmission is happening in those age groups. So we have to make sure that kids are getting vaccinated before they go to school," King said in a university news release.

The study was published March 28 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

More information

The American Academy of Family Physicians has more on whooping cough.

SOURCE: University of Michigan, news release, March 28, 2018

-- Robert Preidt

Last Updated: Mar 29, 2018

HPV Vaccine saves lives!


Information on HPV and Vaccine

Does your student skip breakfast??? They could be missing essential nutrition!!!

Do your kids skip breakfast? Here’s how doing so puts their health at great risk.

A UK study found that children who skip breakfast regularly may not be consuming the recommended daily amounts of key ...more

AFD Station #20 Serving Cleveland Community!

AFD Station #20 Serving Cleveland Community!

School Nurse Locker

PPT, Word, Excel Viewers [Go]
Acrobat Reader [Go]

How Do Vaccines Work???


Our Best Shot - Vaccines Save Lives

Your Teen Needs 8-10 hours of sleep for Good Mood!

For teens, a good mood depends on good sleep

Sleeping less than eight hours — or more than 10 — makes teenagers feel worse the next day

For families with teenagers, school nights may fall into a familiar pattern. Parents urge their kids to go to bed early. But teens would rather stay up late. Maybe they have homework or want to spend time with friends. Or maybe it’s just hard to fall asleep. But a new study confirms that adolescents need eight to 10 hours of sleep at night to feel their best the next day.

As kids reach adolescence, they often face increasing workloads and responsibilities. But they are not yet adults. Their bodies and brains are still changing. As a result, "Their sleep needs are like that of a developing child," says Rafael Pelayo. He is a sleep doctor at the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in California. He was not involved in the new study.

Explainer: The teenage body clock

"Adolescence is sometimes referred to as the 'perfect storm' of problems of sleep," says Pelayo. On the one hand, teens need regular sleep to be mentally and physically healthy. But their internal clocks shift during this period. Their bodies want to stay awake later at night and sleep later in the morning. School still starts early, though. As a result, Pelayo estimates that 80 to 90 percent of teens do not get enough sleep.

That missed sleep has consequences. Sleep-deprived kids are more prone to mental and physical illnesses. Sleepy drivers face a heightened risk of car accidents — the top cause of teenage death. But too much sleep can have its own problems, such as leaving teens with a sour mood upon waking.

Sleep affects mood

Andrew Fuligni studies the mental health of adolescents at the University of California, Los Angeles. He wanted to understand which sleep habits help teens feel and perform their best. To find out, his team surveyed 419 students. Each was between the ages of 13 and 19. Every day for two weeks, these volunteers recorded when they fell asleep and woke up. They also rated their moods and feelings the next day, such as their happiness, anxiety and pain.

Story continues below image.

Teens filled out this sleep form each day for two weeks. The results showed that sleeping eight to 10 hours each night was essential for them to be in a good mood the next day.
Andrew Fuligni, University of California, Los Angeles

Most students reported good moods after a night of eight to 10 hours of sleep. "Too much sleep and too little sleep are both extremes," says Pelayo. And both were linked with problems.

Within that eight-to-10-hour range, older kids seemed to need the least sleep. "A 17- or 18-year-old does not need as much sleep as a 14-year-old in order to function on a daily basis," Fuligni found. But, he adds, "They still need a sizeable amount of sleep."

The team published its findings August 18 in the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

Even among kids the same age, everyone needed a slightly different amount of sleep to feel good. One reason could be health issues that differ among them. For instance, in the new study, kids with anxiety and depression seemed to need more sleep to function well.

Sleep is a lot like appetite, Pelayo says. Just as people eat different amounts of food daily, sleep patterns between healthy people also may differ.

Choosing snoozing

Biologically, kids’ bodies shift toward a later schedule during the teenage years. "They become more like night owls and less like early risers," says Fuligni. But despite the change in their internal body clocks, school start times and other schedules don't change.

"We have set up a system that's very difficult for many teenagers and some kids who might be at risk of mental and behavioral health problems," he concludes.

One way to help teens get enough sleep is to have school start later. Some school districts have already done this. They’ve found that the later times let kids sleep more. They also have seen fewer car accidents, higher test scores and better graduation rates. Because of this, California lawmakers are trying to change school start times in their state. If they succeed, California middle and high schools could start no earlier than 8:30 a.m.

But until schools change their start times, teenagers have to help themselves. Pelayo suggests teens sleep for 10 hours each night for a week or two. This will help them figure out how much sleep they need to feel their best. 

Sleeping more on weekends to make up for missing sleep during the week isn’t a good idea, though. Fuligni warns that getting different amounts of sleep each night can be bad for mental health.

Pelayo agrees. "The amount of sleep you get on weekdays and weekends should be the same," he says. We don't starve ourselves of food on weekdays and gorge on weekends, he points out. We shouldn't do that with sleep either.


Nov 21, 2017 — 6:45 am EST

Journal:​ ​​A.J. Fuligni et al. Individual differences in optimum sleep for daily mood during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology.  Published online on August 18, 2017. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2017.1357126.

Becky Smith

School Nurse

Email - 

Phone - 881-9227 ext. 43511


Health Assistant


Email -

Phone - 881-9227 ext. 43513



Nurse Practitioner Week November 12-18